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On the Origin of Taishō 1462, the Alleged Translation of the Pāli Samantapāsādikā

Pages 435 - 449


This article presents a new perspective on the relation between the Chinese Shanjian lü piposha and the Pāli Samantapāsādikā. A comparative analysis of the constituent parts of their respective titles explores how and to what extent both titles can be identified. An examination of the internal and external references to Shanjian lü piposha reveals new information on the possible origin of Taishō 1462.


1 The 開元釋教錄Kaiyuan shijiao lu, a ‘Buddhist catalogue of the Kaiyuan period’ compiled by Zhisheng in 730 and considered a standard reference, records the following facts concerning T.1462: T55n2154, p. 535c22: 跋陀以武帝永明六年戊辰共沙門僧禕於廣州竹林寺譯出名為善見律毘婆沙. Batuo yi Wudi yongming liu nian wuchen gong shamen Sengyi yu Guangzhou Zhulinsi yi chu ming wei shanjian lü piposha: [Saṅgha]bhadra translated [the text] in the sixth year of the yongming period of the Emperor Wu, in the year wuchen, together with the śramaṇa Sengyi in the veṇuvana monastery in Guangzhou (Canton) and called it the Shanjian lü piposha.

2 P. Demiéville/H. Durt/A. Seidel: Répertoire du canon bouddhique sino-japonais, édition de Taishō (Taishō Shinshū Daizōkyō). Paris 1978, p. 281.

3 It can be dated ad 429/430 or 369/370. O. von Hinüber: A Handbook of Pāli Literature. Berlin/New York 1996, p. 104.

4 J. Takakusu: “Pāli Elements in Chinese Buddhism: A Translation of Buddhaghosa's Samanta-pāsādikā, a Commentary on the Vinaya, found in the Chinese Tripiṭaka.” In: JRAS (1896), pp. 415–439.

5 K. Mizuno: 善見律毘婆沙と サマンタパ一サ一ディカ一.” In: Bukkyō Kenkyū I, 3 (1937), pp. 77–100; “善見律毘婆沙と サマンタパ一サ一ディカ一.” In: Bukkyō Kenkyū II, 3 (1938), pp. 111–139.

6 M. Nagai: “善見律毘婆沙と サマンタパ一サ一ディカ一との対照研究.” In: Nampō Shoden Butten no Kenkyū 4 ([1936] 1975), pp. 1–57.

7 N. A. Jayawickrama: The Inception of Discipline and the Vinaya Nidāna, Being a Translation and Edition of the Bāhiranidāna of Buddhaghosa's Samantapāsādikā, the Vinaya Commentary. London [1962] 1986 (Sacred Books of the Buddhists 21).

8 H. Durt: La version chinoise de l'introduction historique de la Samantapāsādikā, traduction du chapitre introductif du chan kien liu p'i-p'o-cha et notes sur les rapports entre ce texte et la tradition Pāli concernant l'histoire du bouddhisme ancien en Inde et a Ceylan. 3 vols. Louvain 1970.

9 P. V. Bapat/A. Hirakawa: Shan-Chien-P'i-P'o-Sha: A Chinese Version by Saṅghabhadra of Samantapāsādikā, Commentary on Pāli Vinaya, translated into English for the first time. Poona 1970.

10 P. Demiéville: “A propos du Concile de Vaiśālī.” In: T'oung Pao, 15, 4–5 (1951), pp. 239–296, p. 289.

11 F. Lottermoser: Quoted verse passages in the works of Buddhaghosa: Contributions towards the study of the lost Sihalatthakatha literature. Bamberg 1982, p. 163.

12 H. Bechert: Die Lebenszeit des Buddha – das älteste feststehende Datum der indischen Geschichte? Göttingen 1986 (Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen. I. Philologisch-historische Klasse, 4), p. 138 [12].

13 A. Heirman: “The Chinese Samantapāsādikā and its School Affiliation.” In: ZDMG 154 (2004), pp. 371–396.

14 Heirman 2004, p. 384.

15 Ibid., p. 392.

16 Ibid., p. 388.

17 Ibid., p. 390.

18 Ibid., p. 385. See also A. Heirman: “Vinaya: from India to China.” In: A. Heirman/S. P. Bumbacher (eds.): The Spread of Buddhism. Leiden/Boston 2007 (HdO 8, Vol. 16), pp. 167–202, p. 194.

19 See also L. M. Pruden: The Essentials of the Vinaya Tradition by Gyōnen. Translated from the Japanese (Taishō, Vol. 74, No. 2348) Berkeley, California 1995 (BDK English Tripiṭaka 97, I), p. 113.

20 G. Mizuno, (ed.): 仏書解説大辞典 Bussho Kaisetsu Daijiten, Vol. 6. Tokyo 1968 [1933], p. 370.

21 U. Wogihara et al., (eds.): 漢訳対照梵和大辭典新装版 Kanyaku taishō Bonwa daijiten shinshō han. Tokyo 2006 [1986], p.1479; H. Nakamura: 佛教語大辭典, 縮刷版 Bukkyōgo daijiten, shukusatsuban. Tokyo 1981, p. 1043; A. Hirakawa: 佛教漢梵大辞典 A Buddhist Chinese-Sanskrit Dictionary. Tokyo 1997, p. 262.

22 M. Monier Williams: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Oxford 2000 [1899], p. 1224.

23 Wogihara 2006, p. 1220; Nakamura 1981, p. 1419; Hirakawa 1997, p. 443.

24 Wogihara 2006, p. 1232; Nakamura 1981, p. 1135; Hirakawa 1997, p. 698.

25 Monier Williams 2000, p. 951.

26 R. C. Childers: A Dictionary of the Pali language. New Delhi/Chennai 2003 [London 1875], p. 428; T. W. Rhys Davids/W. Stede (eds.): The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary. Oxford 2004 [1921–1925], pp. 456, 683.

27 Rhys Davids/Stede 2004, p. 683.

28 Ibid., p. 456.

29 Ibid., p. 446.

30 T24n1462, p. 759b20.

31 J. Takakusu/M. Nagai (eds.): Samantapāsādikā, Buddhaghosa's Commentary on the Vinaya Piṭaka. 8 vols. London 1966–1998 [1924–1947], vol. II. p. 516.

32 Takakusu 1896, p. 422.

33 Rhys Davids/Stede 2004, pp. 597, 656.

34 Hirakawa 1997, p. 2; W. E. Soothill/L. Hodous: A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms, with Sankrit and English equivalents and a Sanskrit-Pali Index. Delhi 2003 [1937], p. 2; Wogihara 2006, p. 1441; Monier Williams 2000, p. 1185.

35 Childers 2003, p. 407; Rhys Davids/Stede 2004, p. 680.

36 Monier Williams 2000, p. 1155.

37 Wogihara 2006, p. 1412.

38 In fact here, vinayasaṃvaṇṇanā agrees with Samantapāsādikā, not vaṇṇanā. J. Takakusu/M. Nagai 1966–1998, vol. I, p. 284; vol. II, pp. 392, 479, 516. For a full discussion, cf. infra point 1.c.

39 Cf. supra, notes 21 and 22.

40 Childers 2003, p. 485.

41 Rhys Davids/Stede 2004, p. 456.

42 Duanzheng was not only used for the Sanskrit prasāda and prāsādika, but it is also recorded as the Chinese translation of the Pāli term pāsādika in some modern Japanese dictionaries. See e.g. S. Kumoi: パーリ語佛教辞典 Pārigo bukkyō jiten. Tokyo 1997, p. 625; K. Mizuno: 増補改訂パ一リ語辞典 Zōho kaitei Pārigo jiten. Tokyo 2005 [1968], p. 225b.

43 Wogihara 2006, p. 894; Nakamura 1981, p. 940; Hirakawa 1997, p. 914.

44 T24n1462, p. 714c13–16 (2 x). A parallel passage can be found in the Samantapāsādikā (J. Takakusu/M. Nagai 1966–1998, vol. I, p. 222) and in the Pāli vinaya (H. Oldenberg: The Vinaya Piṭakaṃ: one of the Principal Buddhist Holy Scriptures in the Pāli Language. Vol. I: the Mahāvagga. Oxford 1997 [1879], p. 21). In the parallel passages in Pāli, we find pāsādika.

45 T24n1462, p. 712c27, p. 725a04, p. 726a02–04 (4 ×), p. 731a14, p. 743b07–09 (2 ×), p. 793c18. In the parallel passages in Pāli different words for ‘beautiful’ are used. J. Takakusu/M. Nagai 1966–1998, vol. I, pp. 212, 272, 278; vol. II, p. 306; vol. V, p. 1114. The second last duanzheng occurs in the foundation story of Vaiśālī. This story is not found in the Samantapāsādikā. A similar passage does occur however in a subcommentary on the Samantapāsādikā, namely in the Sāratthadīpanī. B. Sharma (ed.): Sāratthadīpanīṭīkā, Samantapāsādikāya Vinayaṭṭhakathāya Atthavaṇṇanābhūtā, Bhadantasāriputtattherena Katā. 3 vols. Varanasi 1991–1996 (Pāli-granthamālā 8), vol. 2, p. 130. There, suvaṇṇa ‘of beautiful colour’, is used. With reference to the last occurrence of duanzheng, the parallel passage in the Pāli vinaya (H. Oldenberg: The Vinaya Piṭakaṃ: one of the Principal Buddhist Holy Scriptures in the Pāli Language. Vol. I: The Mahāvagga. Oxford 1997 [1879], p. 268) also uses pāsādika.

46 Cf. supra note 23.

47 Cf. supra notes 25 and 33.

48 We find fourteen concluding remarks in the form of the following formula: Samantapāsādikāya vinayasaṃvaṇṇanāya [something-]vannanā niṭṭhitā, ‘the commentary on [something] in the Samantapāsādikā, the laudatory account of the vinaya, is finished’. [J. Takakusu/M. Nagai 1966–1998, vol I, p. 284; vol. II, pp. 392, 479, 516; vol. III, pp. 630, 635, 734; vol. IV, pp. 885, 906, 919, 948, 949; vol. V, p. 1154; vol. VI, p. 1414]. Only to conclude the comment on the pāṭidesanīyas and the bhikkhuvibhaṅga as a whole, we find vinayavaṇṇanā [J. Takakusu/M. Nagai 1966–1998, vol. IV, pp. 889, 899] and to conclude the sattasatikakkhandhakas, we find saṃvaṇṇanā without vinaya [J. Takakusu/M. Nagai 1966–1998, vol. VI, p. 1300].

49 Rhys Davids/Stede 2004, p. 597.

50 Ibid., p. 656.

51 J. Takakusu/M. Nagai 1966–1998, vol. I, p. 1.

52 Rhys Davids/Stede 2004, p. 24.

53 Wogihara 2006, p. 1431; Hirakawa 1997, p. 172; Monier Williams 2000, p. 1172.

54 K. Mizuno: Buddhist Sutras: Origin, development, transmission. (Translated from the Japanese by M. Takanashi et al.; adapted by R. M. Davis.) Tokyo 1982, p. 103.

55 T55n2145, p. 13b20.

56 K. Mizuno 1982, p. 106.

57 T55n2154, p. 535c10.

58 T74n2348, p. 16a15. See also M. Nagai in: G. Mizuno (ed.): 仏書解説大辞典 Bussho Kaisetsu Daijiten. Vol. 6. Tokyo 1968 [1933], p. 370.

59 In the following catalogues, piposha lü, lü piposha and pini piposha are recorded. The 歷代三寶紀 Lidai sanbaoji (T49n2034), a ‘Record of the Tripiṭaka in Successive Dynasties’, has been compiled by Fei Changfang in 597. The 佛祖統紀 Fozu tongji (T49n2035), the ‘Complete Chronicle of the Buddha and Patriarchs’, is an historical work that has been compiled by Shipan between 1269 and 1271. The 出三藏記集 Chu sanzang jiji (T55n2145), a ‘Collection of Records Concerning the Tripiṭaka’, is the oldest extant catalogue and has been compiled by Sengyou around 518. The 眾經目錄 Zhongjing mulu (T55n2146), a ‘Catalogue of Scriptures’, has been compiled by Fajing et al. in 594. The 眾經目錄 Zhongjing mulu (T55n2147), a ‘Catalogue of Scriptures’, has been compiled by Yancong et al. in 602. The 眾經目錄 Zhongjing mulu (T55n2148), a ‘Catalogue of Scriptures’, has been compiled by Jintai et al. in 603. The 大唐內典錄 Datang neidian lu (T55n2149), a ‘Catalogue of Buddhist Works in the Great Tang’, has been compiled by Daoxuan in 664. The 古今譯經圖紀 Gu jin yijing tuji (T55n2151), an ‘Illustrated Record of Translated Scriptures of Past and Present’, has been compiled by Jingmai in 664–665. The 大周刊定眾經目錄 Dazhou kanding zhongjing mulu (T55n2153), ‘A Catalogue of Scriptures, authorized by the Great Zhou’, has been compiled by Mingquan et al. in 695. The 開元釋教錄 Kaiyuan shijiao lu (T55n2154), a ‘Buddhist Catalogue of the Kaiyuan period’ has been compiled by Zhisheng in 730. It is considered a standard reference and model for the later catalogues. The 開元釋教錄略出 Kaiyuan shijiao lu lüe chu (T55n2155), an ‘Abridged Reproduction of the Buddhist Catalogue of the Kaiyuan period’, has been compiled by Zhisheng in 730. The 貞元新定釋教目錄 Zhenyuan xinding shijiao mulu (T55n2157), a ‘Revised List of Canonical Buddhist Texts from the Zhenyuan era’, has been compiled by Yuanzhou between 799 and 800.

60 T49n2034, p. 119b04; T55n2146, p. 140a25; T55n2147, p. 155b22; T55n2148, p. 187c27; T55n2149, p. 310b09; T55n2154, pp. 535c10, 535c23, 619c25, 695b05, 719c27; T55n2155, p. 742c18; T55n2157, pp. 833c06, 833c20, 953a26, 1043b10.

61 T49n2035, p. 347b15; T55n2145, pp. 13b20 (2x), 82a26; T55n2149, pp. 262b02, 324a15; T55n2151, p. 363b24; T55n2153, pp. 434a13, 470b09; T55n2154, pp. 535c10, 619c25, 695b05, 719c27; T55n2157, pp. 833c06, 953a26.

62 T49n2034, p. 119c02; T55n2146, p. 140c18; T55n2147, p. 155c12; T55n2149, pp. 300b23, 310b13, 324a21; T55n2153, pp. 334b19, 470c14; T55n2154, pp. 518c25, 620a10, 695b11, 720a07; T55n2157, pp. 815c07, 953b12.

63 P. Demiéville/H. Durt/A. Seidel 1978, p. 123.

64 This is 402 a.d. See R. H. Mathews: Mathews' Chinese-English Dictionary. Cambridge, Massachusetts 1996 [1932], p. 1169.

65 See also R. Shih: Biographies des moines éminents, Kao seng tchouan de Houei-kiao, traduites et annotées. Première partie: Biographies des premiers traducteurs. Louvain 1968, pp. 57–58: “T'an-mo-yo-chö (Dharmayaśas), nom qui signifie: Fa-ming ou Gloire de la Loi. Il était originaire du Cachemire. (…) Il lut vastement les Sūtra et le Vinaya. (…) Au cours de la période Long-ngan (397–401) des Tsin, il arriva pour la première fois à Canton, et se fixa dans le Po-cha sseu. Comme Dharmayaśas récitait bien le Vibhāṣāvinaya, tout le monde l'appela Ta-p'i-p'o-cha (Mahāvibhāṣā, Grand-Vaibhāṣika). En ce temps-là, il était déjà âgé de quatre-vingt-cinq ans. (…)”

66 Cf. supra note 1.

67 Cf. supra note 55.

68 Cf. supra note 61.

69 Also in later secondary sources, the same interpretation was made. E.g. Z. Tsukamoto: A History of Early Chinese Buddhism — From Its Introduction to the Death of Hui-yüan. 2 vols. Translated from the Japanese (Chūgoku Bukkyō tsūshi. Tokyo 1979) by L. Hurvitz. Tokyo 1985, refers on page 446 to the same passage from Dharmayaśas' biography and translates Piposha lü as Samantapāsādikā. He adds in a footnote (p. 652): “The likelihood is that Dharmayaśas was versed in a Sanskrit text corresponding to the Samantapāsādikā, which is in Pāli, a Sanskrit version having the word vibhāṣā in its title, for the most common Chinese title is Shan chien lüp'i-p'o-sha, whose last word is simply a phonetic transcription of the Sanskrit vibhāṣā.”

70 See e.g. P. C. Bagchi: “Ki-pin and Kashmir.” In: Sino-Indian Studies 2, 1 (1946), pp. 42–53; L. Petech: Northern India according to the Shui-ching-chu. Roma 1950 (SOR 2), p. 71.

71 魏書 Weishu. 魏收 Wei Shou, 8 vols. (compiled in 551–554). Beijing 1974, p. 2277.

72 E. G. Pulleyblank: Outline of Classical Chinese Grammar. Vancouver 2000 [1995], p. 14.


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