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The Mazu Inscription of Chiwan (1464) and the Early Ming Voyages

Pages 191 - 214


There are several inscriptions in the famous Chiwan Temple near Shekou in Shenzhen. One item dates from 1464. This text is important for a number of reasons: It is an early document for the Mazu cult in Central Guangdong; it refers to several Ming envoys and thereby indirectly to the voyages of Zheng He; and it also tells us something about China's maritime connections after the end of these expeditions, in the Guangdong context. The present article provides an annotated translation of the text and discusses these and other issues, mainly by relating them to historical sources and religious works.

1 For Chiwan, the Lingding yang, Mawan bay, Mawan shang/xiajiao etc., see, for example, Guangdong sheng diming weiyuanhui bangongshi 廣東省地名委員會辦公室 (ed.): Guangdong sheng haiyu diming zhi 廣東省海域地名志. Guangzhou: Guangdong sheng ditu chubanshe 1989, pp. 23–25, 134, map on pp. 470–471, and Guangdong sheng jingu diming cidian bianzuan weiyuanhui 廣東省今古地名詞典編纂委員會 (ed.): Guangdong sheng jingu diming cidian 廣東省今古地名詞典 Shanghai: Shanghai cishu chubanshe 1991, p. 62.

2 The Hong Kong Maritime Museum has a fine collection of historical maps showing the Pearl River estuary and Hong Kong. For a selection of such works, especially from earlier periods: Tan Guanglian (K. L. Tam, etc.) 譚廣濂: Cong yuanfang dao jingwei: Xianggang yu Hua'nan lishi ditu cangzhen 從圓方到經緯: 香港與華南歷史地圖藏珍. Hong Kong: Zhonghua shuju 2010.

3 For Bao'an (Xin'an), Dongguan and Nantou in history: Guangdong sheng jingu diming cidian, pp. 61–63, 367–368, 857.—Important sources with essential data on the early Ming administration in Guangdong: Chen Xun 陳循 et al. (comp.): Huanyu tongzhi 寰宇通志, 10 vols. Taibei: Guangwen shuju 1968 (originally 1456), IX, especially j. 102, 1b–2a, 5a; Li Xian 李賢 et al. (comp.): Da Ming yitong zhi 大明一統志, 10 vols. Taibei: Wenhai chubanshe 1965 (originally 1461), IX, especially j. 79, 2a–b (pp. 4851–4852), 8b (p. 4864).—For the Lingding yang and related toponyms in early Ming times, see, for example, Zhou Yunzhong 周運中: Zheng He xia Xiyang xin kao 鄭和下西洋新考. Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe 2013, especially pp. 121 et seq.

4 There are many studies on the Nanhai shen miao, for example, Huang Miaozhang 黄淼章: Nanhai shen miao 南海神廟. Guangzhou: Guangdong renmin chubanshe 2005; Wang Yuanlin 王元林: Guojia jisi yu haishang silu yiji—Guangzhou Nanhai shen miao yanjiu 國家祭祀與海上絲路遺跡—廣州南海神廟研究. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju 2006; several articles in Haijiaoshi yanjiu 海交史研究, issues for 2006 et seq.—The Mage miao has been described in countless works as well. Here are only some references to publications in European languages: M. Teixeira: The Story of Ma-kok-miu. Macau 1979; M. Teixeira: Pagodes de Macau. Macau 1982; C. M.-B. Cheng: Macau. A Cultural Janus. Hong Kong 1999, especially pp. 100–116; G. Abelshauser: “Mazu-Tempel in Macau.” In: C. Müller / R. Ptak (eds.): Mazu: Chinesische Göttin der Seefahrt. Dargestellt an der Holzschnittfolge “Die feierliche Begrüßung der Mazu” von Lin Chih-hsin. Munich 2009, pp. 37–41.—For the quotation, see Qu Dajun: Guangdong xinyu. Hong Kong: Zhonghua shuju 1975, j. 6, p. 205.

5 There are high elevations on Nei Lingding, especially in the southeastern part of the island, then also called Lingding shan 零丁山. Possibly Qu Dajun refers to these hills. Alternatively, he may have meant, in a general way, several islands near Chiwan. —Or, are the names related to Da Xishan 大奚山 / Xiao Xishan 小奚山? For a recent discussion of the latter: Zhou Yunzhong 2013, pp. 121–127.—For a Qing source listing Lingding shan in the Chiwan hai 赤灣海: JQ-XAXZ (for this text see note 7, below), j. 4, p. 254 and p. 262 n. 18.

6 One of the more comprehensive works on the Chiwan temple is a general book by Long Hui 龍輝: Chiwan Mazu wenhua gailan 赤灣媽祖文化概覽. Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe 2007. This account, written for a broader audience, provides some details of the temple's recent fate.

7 For all items, i. e., inscriptions (1) to (5), see: Mazu wenxian shiliao huibian 媽祖文獻史料彙編 (now MZWX), Beiji juan 碑記卷, p. 6 (images of the first two items), pp. 52, 69–70, 94–95, 255–256 (texts). MZWX, a printed collection of texts related to the Goddess of Sailors, consists of several series by different publishers (and editors not listed here): ser. I, 4 vols. Beijing: Zhongguo dang'an chubanshe 2007; ser. II, 5 vols. Beijing: Zhongguo dang'an chubanshe 2009); ser. III, 7 vols. Fuzhou: Haifeng chubanshe 2011. Beiji juan belongs to the first series. According to the editors of this volume, texts (1), (2), (4) and (5) all follow the original inscriptions; (3) follows the Kangxi Xin'an xianzhi 康熙新安縣志. For an excellent modern edition of this chronicle, see Zhang Yibing 張一兵: Kangxi Xin'an xianzhi. Beijing: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe 2006 (originally 1668), especially j. 12, pp. 448–452, 494–496 (text 3 and again text 2). For (1), (2), (4) and (5) also Zhang Yibing: Jiaqing Xin'an xianzhi 嘉慶新安縣志 (now JQ-XAXZ). Beijing: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe 2006 (originally 1819), j. 23 (yiwen zhi), pp. 825–827, 854–858, 909–914.—There are other traditional fangzhi 方志 and various modern works, which contain some of these texts. Two examples: Guo Wenbing 郭文炳 et al.: Kangxi Dongguan xianzhi 康熙東莞縣志. Dongguan: Dongguan shi renmin zhengfu 1994 (originally 1689), j. 9, p. 273 (text 3; not seen); Long Hui 2007, pp. 34–40.—Furthermore, several catalogues and collections preceding MZWX list the titles of the inscriptions. One such item is Zhonghua Mazu wenhua jiaoliu xiehui … 中華媽祖文化交流恊會… (eds.): Mazu yanjiu ziliao 媽祖研究資料, 2 vols. Fuzhou: Haifeng chubanshe 2005, I, pp. 28 (no. 270), 30 (no. 289), 32 (no. 313).—Guangdong local chronicles are available in several collections, for example, in Guangdong lidai fangzhi jicheng 廣東歷代方志集成. Brief descriptions of individual fangzhi are found in many catalogues. One early and still very useful work is Li Mo 李默: Guangdong fangzhi yaolu 廣東方志要錄. Guangzhou: Guangdong sheng difangzhi bianzuan weiyuanhui bangongshi c. 1987. Additional listings are in late fangzhi works. One item: Ye Juewan 葉覺萬 (author), Chen Botao 陳伯陶 (comp.): Xuantong Dongguan xianzhi 宣統東莞縣志, 5 vols., Taibei: Chengwen chubanshe 1967 (Zhongguo fangzhi congshu 52; originally 1911), V, j. 85, 5b–13b (pp. 3242–3258).

8 There are several biographies of Huang Jian. See, for example, Huang Zuo 黄佐: (Jiajing) Guangdong tongzhi (嘉靖) 廣東通志 (now JJ-GDTZ), 4 vols. Hong Kong: Dadong tushu gongsi 1977 (originally 1561), III, j. 53, 61b–62 a (p. 1421); Jiao Hong 焦竑: Guochao xianzheng lu 國朝獻徵錄, 8 vols. Taibei: Taiwan xuesheng shuju 1984 (Zhongguo shixue congshu 6), II, j. 20, 33a–b (p. 807); JQ-XAXZ, j. 23, pp. 825–826 n. 1. A modern biography is in Chang Bide 昌彼得 et al.: Mingren zhuanji ziliao suoyin 明人傳記資料索引. Taibei: Guoli zhongyang tushuguan 1978, p. 663.—At one point during his career Huang was charged with allowing cheating during an examination. See L. Carrington Goodrich / Chaoying Fang (eds.): Dictionary of Ming Biography, 2 vols. New York / London 1976, I, p. 970; B. A. Elman: A Cultural History of Civil Examinations in Late Imperial China. Berkeley 2000, p. 206.

9 For xingci: JQ-XAXZ, j. 23, p. 826 n. 2.

10 Some editions read “more than four hundred li” (四百餘里) and not “one hundred li to the west…”. JQ-XAXZ, j. 23, p. 827 n. 1, prefers “east” in lieu of “west”. Geographically, all these versions are misleading.

11 Tailao: this refers to the principal offerings, or san sheng 三牲, namely beef, lamb and pork.

12 “Fill with grass”: This follows JQ-XAXZ. MZWX has geshi 革實.

13 Bing ke and, farther below, Xing ke: two of the so-called Liu ke 六科, or Six Offices of Scrutiny, which monitored the Six Ministries. The xingren belonged to the Xingren si 行人司, or Messenger Office, an agency attached to the Ministry of Rites. See C. O. Hucker: A Dictionary of Official Titles in Imperial China. Stanford 1985, nos. 587, 2574–2576, 4676.

14 County magistrate: According to Liu Zhiwei 劉志偉: “‘Guanfang’ miaoyu de yiyi zhuanbian—Chiwan Tianhou miao beiming jiexi” “官方” 廟宇的意義轉變—赤灣天后廟碑銘解析. In: Zheng Zhenman 鄭振滿 (ed.): Beiming yanjiu 碑銘研究, di er ji 第二輯. Beijing: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe 2014, p. 337 and n. 4 there, this is Wu Zhong 吳中, who appears in several Guangdong chronicles. See, for example, JJ-GDTZ, III, j. 49, 71a–72 a (p. 1314); Guo Pei 郭裴 (second character also Fei 棐; author), Huang Guosheng 黄國聲 and Deng Guizhong 鄧貴忠 (eds.): 粵大記 Yue da ji, 2 vols. Guangzhou: Zhongshan daxue chubanshe 1998 (originally completed 1595), j. 12 (not seen). Wu Zhong was also involved in preparing a Dongguan gazetteer; see, for example, Li Mo c. 1987, p. 44.—Ma Shan: See, for example, JQ-XAXZ, j. 23, p. 827 n. 12.

15 Here we follow the text in JQ-XAXZ. MZWX has “… 石善大惟 …”, which makes little sense.

16 There are many modern surveys of the Mazu cult. Here we only cite some works: Li Xianzhang 李獻璋: Mazu xinyang yanjiu 媽祖信仰研究 [O culto da deusa A-Ma]. Macau: Aomen haishi bowuguan 1995 (translated from Japanese), pp. 167–176 (based on Li's Maso shinkô no kenkyû 媽祖信仰の研究 [Stu dies on Belief of Ma-tsu]. Tokyo: Taisan bunbutsusha 1979); Qiu Fuhai 邱福海: Mazu xinyang tanyuan 媽祖信仰探源. Taibei: Shuxin chubanshe 1998; Cai Xianghui 蔡相輝: Mazu xinyang yanjiu 媽祖信仰研究. Taibei: Xuwei zixun keji gufen youxian gongsi 2006; Xu Xiaowang 徐曉望: Mazu xinyang shi yanjiu 媽祖信仰史研究. Fuzhou: Haifeng chubanshe 2007; R. Ptak: O culto de Mazu: Uma visão histórica (Da dinastia Song ao início da dinastia Qing) / Der Mazu-Kult: Ein historischer Überblick (Song bis Anfang Qing). Lisbon 2012.

17 See, for example, Long Hui 2007, pp. 18–22; Liu Zhiwei 2014, pp. 335–348, here p. 335; Li Qingxin 李慶新 Luo Yiying 羅燚英: “Guangdong Mazu xinyang ji qi liubian chutan” 廣東媽祖信仰及其流變初探. In: Shanghai Haishi daxue, Zhongguo haiyang xuehui 上海海事大學, 中國海洋學會 (Shi Ping 時平 et al.) (eds.): Zhongguo minjian haiyang xinyang yanjiu 中國民間海洋信仰研究. Beijing: Haiyang chubanshe 2013, pp. 42–55, here p. 48.—Many earlier articles, some in electronic form, also focus on the Chiwan temple, but very often they only provide some details. One example: Xu Shangli 徐尚黎: “Shenzhen Nanshan Chiwan Tianhougong qianshuo” 深圳南山赤灣天后宮淺說. In: Xungen 尋根 (1/1996), pp. 22–23.

18 For Liao Yongzhong, his campaign and Mazu: Liu Zhiwei 2014, p. 335; Xu Xiaowang 2007, pp. 146–147; JQ-XAXZ, j. 23, pp. 854–856and n. 7 there.—There are several biographies of Liao and Zhu. See, for example, JJ-GDTZ, especially I, j. 7, 1a–3b (pp. 150–160), and III, j. 49, 1a—2a (p. 1279; biography); Zhang Tingyu 張廷玉 et al.: Ming shi 明史, 28 vols. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju 1974, j. 129, pp. 3804–3806; j. 132, pp. 3859–3860.—Also see E. Dreyer: Early Ming China: A Political History, 1355–1435. Stanford 1982, p. 62; almost identical in Dreyer's contribution to F. W. Mote / D. Twitchett (eds.): The Cambridge History of China. Vol. 7: The Ming Dynasty, 1368–1644. Part 1. Cambridge, etc. 1988, p. 97. More elaborate: Fang Zhiqin 方志欽 / Jiang Zuyuan 蔣祖緣 (eds.): Guangdong tongshi: gudai xiace 廣東通史: 古代下册. Guangzhou: Guangdong gaodeng jiaoyu chubanshe 2007, pp. 38, 40–41.

19 For one such case, the anti-Mazu polemic of Zhu Zhe 朱淛 (1536), see Hu Baozhu 胡寶柱 / R. Ptak: “A Mid-Ming Pamphlet against Tianfei: Notes on Zhu Zhe's Tianfei bian.” In: MS 61 (2013), pp. 51–72.

20 See, for example, Jiang Shan 江山 / Shen Si 沈思: “Shi lun Mazu shenhua zai Gang Ao Shen diqu de yingxiang 試論媽祖神話在港澳深地區的影響. In: Zhu Tianshun 朱天順 (ed.): Mazu yanjiu lunwenji 媽祖研究論文集. Xiamen: Lujiang chubanshe 1989, pp. 109–127; Chen Zhonglie 陳忠烈: “Ming Qing yilai Guangdong minjian ‘Tianhou’ nüshen chongbai yu shehui jingji de fazhan” 明清以來廣東民間 “天后” 女神崇拜與社會經濟的發展. In: Guangdong shehui kexue 廣東社會科學 (5/1994), pp. 113–119; Chen Yande 陳衍德: “Minnan Yuedong Mazu xinyang yu jingji wenhua de hudong: lishi he xianzhuang de kaocha” 閩南粵東媽祖信仰與經濟文化的互動: 歷史和現狀的考察. In: Zhongguo shehui jingji shi yanjiu 中國社會經濟史研究 (2/1996), pp. 76–83; Li Qingxin / Luo Yiying 2013; several articles in Putian xueyuan xuebao 莆田學院學報. — See further Li Xianzhang 1995, pp. 167–176, and studies listed in Mazu yanjiu ziliao, II, pp. 353–355.

21 For cults in the Leizhou region and for Fubo: see, for example, Xian Jianmin 冼劍民 / Tao Daoqiang 陶道强: “Shilun Ming Qing shiqi Leizhou minjian shen miao wenhua” 試論明清時期雷州民間神廟文化 . In: Guangdong shizhi 廣東史志 (1/2002), pp. 43–52; Wang Feng 王鋒: “Fubo wenhua de quyu tese ji chuancheng” 伏波文化的區域特色及傳承. In: Shanghai Haishi daxue 上海海事大學 (Shi Ping and Chen Yajun 陳雅君) (eds.): Zhongguo minjian haiyang xinyang yu jihai wenhua yanjiu 中國民間海洋信仰與祭海文化研究. Beijing: Haiyang chubanshe 2011, pp. 48–58.—For Mazu and Hainan: Wang Yuanlin / Deng Minrui 鄧敏鋭: “Ming Qing shiqi Hainan dao de Mazu xinyang” 明清時期海南島的媽祖信仰. In: Zhongguo lishi dili yanjiu 中國歷史地理研究 (3/2005), pp. 41–55.

22 Guangdong xinyu, j. 6, p. 204.—The physical geography of the area to the south of Guangzhou has changed: In Qu Dajun's days, Panyu still had a long coastline of its own. Today Panyu is a district of Guangzhou.

23 Xu Xiaowang 2007, p. 148.—European language works on Mazu's titles: B. Wiethoff: “Der staatliche Ma-tsu Kult.” In: ZDMG 116,2 (1966), pp. 311–357; G. Wädow: T'ien-fei hsien-sheng lu. “Die Aufzeichnungen von der manifestierten Heiligkeit der Himmelsprinzessin.” Einleitung, Übersetzung, Kommentar. Sankt Augustin / Nettetal 1992, especially pp. 92–94 (Ming period generally), pp. 118, 137–139, 283, 288–289 (title of 1372); G. Wädow: “O significado dos títulos da ‘Princesa celestial’ no sistema do culto do Estado chiněs.” In: Revista de Cultura 29 (1996), pp. 191–205.

24 There are many studies on internal shipments and the canal system. One early “classic” is Wu Jihua 吳緝華: Mingdai haiyun ji yunhe de yanjiu 明代海運及運河的研究. Taibei: Zhongyang yanjiuyuan Yuyan lishi yanjiusuo 1961. An early “Western” study: H. May: Der Tributgetreide-Transport auf dem Kaiser-Kanal zur Zeit der Ming-Dynastie (1368–1644). Hamburg 1963 (Dr. phil. dissertation).—Also see, for example, Li Xianzhang 1995, pp. 113–116, and Xu Xiaowang 2007, pp. 150–153.

25 See Wädow 1992, pp. 217–219, 316–317. Wädow's book also contains the Chinese text of the Tianfei xiansheng lu, which appears in different collections. One collection: MZWX, II, Zhulu juan 著錄卷 (shang).—For comprehensive notes on the history of the text and its importance, see, for example, Li Xianzhang 1995, pp. 39 et seq.

26 For maritime relations under Hongwu: Cao Yonghe 曹永和: “Shi lun Ming taizu de haiyang jiaotong zhengce” 試論明太祖的海洋交通政策. In his Zhongguo haiyangshi lunji 中國海洋史論集. Taibei: Lianjing chuban gongsi 2000, pp. 149–190. Shorter: Li Qingxin: Mingdai haiwai maoyi zhidu 明代海外貿易制度. Beijing: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe 2004, pp. 54–58.

27 On Hainan, see, for example, R. Ptak: “Hainan and Its International Trade: Ports, Merchants, Commodities.” In: Tang Xiyong 湯熙勇 (ed.): Zhongguo haiyang fazhanshi lunwenji (di shi ji) 中國海洋發展史論文集 (第十輯). Taibei: Zhongyang yanjiuyuan Renwen shehui kexue zhongxin… 2008, pp. 25–63, here pp. 53–54.

28 Some studies on China-Siam relations: Promboon Suebsaeng: Sino-Siamese Tributary Relations, 1282–1853. Univ. of Wisconsin 1971 (Ph. D. dissertation), ch. II; Lü Shiping: “Sino-Siamese Relations during the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644).” In: Chinese Culture 19.1 (1978), pp. 19–32; Jin Ronghua 金榮華: Zhong Xian jiaotong shishi luncong 中暹 交通史事論叢. Taibei: Shimen tushu gongsi 1978; G. Wade: “The Ming shi-lu as a Source for Thai History, Fourteenth to Seventeenth Centuries.” In: Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 31.2 (2000), pp. 249–294.—Representative work on Champa includes G. Maspero: “Le royaume de Champa.” In: TP, especially 14 (1913), pp. 153–201; Chen Wen 陳文: “Mingchao chushi Zhancheng yanjiu” 明朝出使占城研究. In: Dongnanya 東南亞 (2/2004), pp. 46–52; Liang Zhiming 梁志明: “Lüe lun Zhancheng zai Zheng He xia Xiyang zhong de lishi diwei yu zuoyong—wei Zheng He xia Xiyang liubai zhounian jinian er zuo” 略論占城在鄭和下西洋中的歷史地位與作用—爲鄭和下西洋六百周年紀念而作. In: Wang Tianyou 王天有 et al. (eds.): Zheng He yuanhang yu shijie wenming—jinian Zheng He xia Xiyang liubai zhounian lunwenji 鄭和遠航與世界文明—紀念鄭和下西洋六百周年論 文集. Beijing: Beijing daxue chubanshe 2005, pp. 408–421 (also in Nanyang wenti yanjiu 南洋問题研究 [4/2004], pp. 1–10, 96); Xiao Xianzhu 蕭軒竹: “Zhancheng zai Mingdai duiwai guanxi zhong de diwei” 占城在明代對外關係中的地位. In: Zheng da shicui 政大 史粹 (5/2006), pp. 1–27.—There are many studies on Melaka. See, for example, G. Wade: “Melaka in Ming Dynasty Texts.” In: Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 70.1 (1997), pp. 31–69; Chen Dasheng 陳達生 (Tan Ta Sen): Zheng He yu Maliujia 鄭和與馬六甲. Singapore: Guoji Zheng He xuehui 2005; same: “Zheng He yu Manlajia” 鄭和與滿剌加. In: Zheng He yanjiu 鄭和研究 (3/2008; now ZHYJ), pp. 22–28; Chen Hongyu 陳鴻瑜: “Mingchao yu Maliujia wangchao zhi guanxi: zhanlüe qianyan de jianli yu sangshi” 明朝與馬六甲王朝之關係:戰略前沿的建立和喪失. In: Hanxue yanjiu 漢學 研究 28.4 (2010), pp. 139–169.—Generally, for diplomatic and commercial relations between Southeast Asia and Ming-China the Ming shilu 明實錄 (now MSL) is most essential. Useful tools are: Hiroshi Watanabe: “An Index of Embassies and Tribute Missions from Islamic Countries to Ming China (1368–1644) as Recorded in the Ming Shih-Lu, Classified According to Geographic Area.” In: Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko 33 (1975), pp. 285–347; Li Guoxiang 李國祥 et al. (eds.): Ming shilu leizuan: Shewai shiliao juan 明實錄類纂:涉外史料卷. Wuhan: Wuhan chubanshe 1991; G. P. Wade: The Ming Shi-lu (Veritable Records of the Ming Dynasty) as a Source for Southeast Asian History: Fourteenth to Seventeenth Centuries, 8 vols. Univ. of Hong Kong 1994 (Ph. D. dissertation; large parts of this published electronically).

29 There are many studies on Mazu and Zheng He. Some are listed in Mazu yanjiu ziliao, II, especially pp. 302–307; Zhu Jianqiu 朱鑒秋 (ed.): Bai nian Zheng He yanjiu ziliao suoyin (1904–2003) 百年鄭和研究資料索引 (1904–2003). Shanghai: Shiji chuban jituan Shanghai shudian chubanshe 2005, especially pp. 185–186, 204–207; Ying Liu [柳 瀛] et al. (eds.): Zheng He's Maritime Voyages (1405–1433) and China's Relations with the Indian Ocean World. A Multilingual Bibliography. Leiden and Boston 2014, entries under “Matsu” and “Heavenly Queen”. An early collection of relevant materials is in Zheng Hesheng 鄭鶴聲 / Zheng Yijun 鄭一鈞 (eds.): Zheng He xia Xiyang ziliao huibian 鄭和 下西洋資料彙編. Vol. 1. Ji'nan: Qi Lu shushe 1980, pp. 39–48.—Also see, for example, Li Xianzhang 1995, pp. 116–127; Shi Ping: “Zheng He hanghai Tianfei xinyang shiliao de buyi ji kaoshi” 鄭和航海天妃信仰史料的補遺及考釋. In: Wang Tianyou et al. 2005, pp. 114–123; Jiangsu sheng Jinian Zheng He xia Xiyang 600 zhounian huodong choubei lingdao xiaozu 江蘇省紀念鄭和下西洋 600 周年活動籌備領導小組 (ed.): Chuancheng wenming, zou xiang shijie, heping fazhan: jinian Zheng He xia Xiyang 600 zhounian guoji xueshu luntan lunwenji 傳承文明,走向世界,和平發展:紀念鄭和下西洋 600 周 年國際學術論壇論文集. Beijing: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe 2005 (now JSS—LWJ), articles on pp. 646–671; Xu Xiaowang 2007, pp. 157–165.—The title granted by Yongle is mentioned in many of these and other works. Again, one source is the Tianfei xiansheng lu. See Wädow 1992, pp. 118–119, 283.

30 As is well known, Zheng He is regularly associated with Buddhism, Islam and Daoism/Mazu. Occasionally modern authors have claimed that he probably felt more close to one of these three than to the other two forms of belief/religions. Here we shall just mention one example which ostensibly favours the Mazu link: Xu Keming 徐克明: “Mazu—Zheng He xia Xiyang de jingshen zhizhu” 媽祖—鄭和下西洋的精神支柱. In: ZHYJ (2/2008), pp. 64–66.

31 See, for example, J. J. L. Duyvendak: “The True Dates of the Chinese Maritime Expeditions in the Early Fifteenth Century.” In: TP 34,5 (1939), pp. 341–412, here pp. 343–355; R. Ptak: Cheng Hos Abenteuer im Drama und Roman der Ming-Zeit. Hsia Hsiyang: Eine Übersetzung und Untersuchung. Hsi-yang chi: Ein Deutungsversuch. Stuttgart 1986, pp. 104–111, especially pp. 109–110(plus sources listed in the notes); Wädow 1992, pp. 119, 261–265, 283, 335–336.—Various texts, sites, inscriptions, temples, the bell, etc.—all associated with Zheng He and, simultaneously, with Mazu—described in: Jinian weida hanghaijia Zheng He… 紀念偉大航海家鄭和… (eds.): Zheng He shiji wenwu xuan 鄭和史 跡文物選. Beijing: Renmin jiaotong chubanshe 1985, pp. 11–12, 22–23, 31, 42, 47, 52–55, 58, 63, 67–69. Later works add fresh data to the material presented in this book. We shall refer to some of these studies below.

32 Wädow 1992, pp. 220 et seq., 317 et seq. (nos. 41 et sq.). Later texts, with (partly) identical stories, are the following works: Tianhou xiansheng lu 天后顯聖錄, Tianhou zhaoying lu 天后昭應錄 and Chifeng Tianhou zhi 敕封天后志. For these works one may consult MZWX, II, Zhulu juan (shang), which provides the last text (originally 1778) in full. For this book also see: Lin Qingchang 林慶昌: Mazu zhenji—jian zhushi guji Chifeng Tianhou zhi 媽祖眞跡—兼注釋古籍勅封天后志. Guangzhou: Zhongshan daxue chubanshe 2003. Another beautitul “source” is Zhongguo lishi bowuguan “中國歷史博物 館 (ed.): “Tianhou shengmu shiji tuzhi” / “Tianjin Tianhou gong xinghui tu” heji 《天后 聖母事跡圖誌》/《天津天后宫行會圖》合輯. Hong Kong: Heping tushu youxian gongsi 1992, pp. 72, 74.

33 See Ptak 1986, p. 109, and references given there; Wädow, T'ien-fei hsien-sheng lu, pp. 220–221, 317 (no. 41).—For a later source, similar to Tianfei xiansheng lu, see Chifeng Tianhou zhi, for example in MZWX, II, Zhulu juan (shang), p. 269.

34 For Li Xing: MSL (Taizong), j. 23, 5b (X, p. 0436); Wade 1994, II, p. 208. Also see Ming shi, j. 324, p. 8398. Furthermore, he is mentioned in connection with the year 1404, as for example in Zhang Xie 張燮 (author), Xie Fang 謝方 (ed.): Dongxiyang kao 東西洋 考. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju 1981 (originally 1618), j. 2, p. 32.—For the inscription: works cited in note 31, above.

35 For Daxing jian: Haijun haiyang cehui yanjiusuo… 海軍海洋測繪研究所… (ed.): Xinbian Zheng He hanghai tuji 新編鄭和航海圖集. Beijing: Renmin jiaotong chubanshe 1988, pp. 41–42.—There are various editions of that map and many new works which discuss it. Recent and very refreshing comments in Zhou Yunzhong 2013 and Zhang Jian 張箭: Zheng He xia Xiyang yanjiu lungao 鄭和下西洋研究論稿, 2 vols. Xinbei shi: Hua Mulan wenhua chubanshe 2013.—For a different identification: Wädow 1992, p. 220 n. 489; further information in Guangdong sheng haiyu diming zhi, p. 120.

36 Wang Zhigao: “Hong Bao shou zang ming zongkao” 洪保壽藏銘綜考. In: ZHYJ (3/2010), pp. 10–23, especially p. 14; same: “Hong Bao shengping shiji ji fensi chukao” 洪保生平事跡及墳寺初考. In: Kaogu 考古 5 (2012), pp. 74–84 (458–468), here pp. 77–78(partly identical wording). The Chen Zhushan xiansheng wenji, by Chen Cheng 陳誠, is in Siku quanshu cunmu congshu, ji bu, vol. 26; see. p. 356 there. More on Hong Bao in ZHYJ (3/2010) and subsequent issues of that journal. This includes work on the religious dimensions associated with this man.

37 Zhou Yunzhong 2013, pp. 344–354. Zhou also mentions some earlier studies on Hong Bao.—An interesting article to consider in that context: Liu Kongfu 劉孔伏 / Zhou Yu 周喻: “Zheng He Yongle yuannian fengshi Xianluo guo shi kaobian” 鄭和永樂元年奉 使暹羅國事考辨, ZHYJ (4/2006), pp. 45–48.—For the 1409 episode in Tianfei xiansheng lu: Wädow 1992, pp. 139, 289. For a suggestion to amend the date from 1403 to 1409, see Jiang Weiyan 蔣維錟: “Ming Yongle zhi Xuande jian de taijian waijiao yu Tianfei chongbai” 明永樂至宣德間的太監外交與天妃崇拜. In: JSS-LWJ, pp. 653–664, here pp. 655–656.

38 And yet, Long Hui 2007, p. 29, came to the remarkable conclusion that Zheng He had visited the Chiwan temple during all his voyages; one argument is that this was the last location on the mainland, before his fleets proceeded to the open ocean.

39 Chen Yanhang 陳延杭: “Guangdong Nan'ao dao shang de Sanbao gong miao” 廣東南澳島上的三保公廟. In: ZHYJ (1/1995), p. 35; Li Qingxin: “Zai Guangdong faxian ‘Zheng He’—yi difang wenxian yu minjian xinyang wei zhongxin” 在廣東發現《鄭 和》– 以地方文獻與民間信仰為中心. In same: Pin hai zhi di: Nanhai maoyi yu Zhongwai guanxishi yanjiu 瀕海之地:南海貿易與中外關係史研究. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju 2010, pp. 174–175(also published elsewere).—See further R. Ptak: “Some Notes on Nan'ao in Portuguese Sources of the Sixteenth Century.” In: Jiao Tianlong et al. (eds.): Mapping Ming China's Maritime World. 2 vols. Hong Kong 2015, I, pp. 264–288. A recent general study on Nan'ao: Hu Baozhu et al.: “Ming Yongle zhi Longqing Nan'ao de haishang huodong—fu: zaoqi Puwen ziliao zhong de Nan'ao dao” 明永樂至隆慶南澳的海上活動—附: 早期葡文資料中的南澳島. In: Haijiaoshi yanjiu (1/2014), pp. 73–94.

40 Li Qingxin: “Zai yi Zheng He xia Xiyang—yi liang ci cong Guangdong qihang wei zhongxin” 再議鄭和下西洋—以兩次從廣東啟航為中心. In: Guangdong shehui kexue 廣 東社會科學 (2/2003), pp. 113–119; Li Qingxin 2010; Fang Zhiqin / Jiang Zuyuan 2007, p. 158; Shi Cunlong: “Zheng He di er, liu ci xia Xiyang chufadi kaobian” 鄭和第二、六 次下西洋出發地考辨. In: JSS-LWJ, pp. 426–434.—Generally, the data provided by local chronicles in that context are surprising and certainly need fresh investigation. JJ-GDTZ, I, j. 7, 13 b, states, for example, that in the 9 th month (autumn) of 1407 Zheng He received orders to proceed to the Xiyang. There then follows an addendum in smaller characters: “He first went from Guangdong to Champa.” The same information appears in Guo Fei (Guo Pei): (Wanli) Guangdong tongzhi (萬曆) 廣東通志 (1602; rare edition), j. 6, 11b. The role of Guangdong during this voyage is not clear. But this should be a point for a separate study.

41 MSL (Taizong), j. 82, 6a—b (XI, pp. 1103–1104); j. 111, 1b (XII, p. 1416); Wade 1994, III, pp. 461, 538; Ming shi, j. 324, p. 8399.—Many authors have discussed the relevant entries in these sources or only some of them. One example: Long Hui 2007, pp. 23–25.

42 Quoted after Matsuura Akira 松浦章 (author), Wang Haiyan 王海燕 and Shi Ping (tr.): “Guanyu Zheng He xia Xiyang suixing renyuan shiji” 關於鄭和下西洋随行人 員事跡. In: ZHYJ (1/2002), pp. 52–61, here p. 56. Also see Fan Jinming 範金民: “‘Weisuo wuzhi xuanbu’ suo fanying de Zheng He xia Xiyang shi” 《衛所武職選簿》所反映的鄭 和下西洋事. In: Mingdai yanjiu 明代研究 13 (2009), pp. 33–80, here especially p. 52; Shao Lei 邵磊 / Zhu Wei 朱巍, “Qianxi Zheng He xia Xiyang youguan de liang zhong wuguan muzhi 淺析鄭和下西洋有關的兩穜武官墓志. In: Nanjing Xiaozhuang xueyuan xuebao 南京曉莊學院學報 (2/2014), pp. 109–113, here p. 109.—For the ranks: Hucker 1985, nos. 2383 and 7089.

43 Wädow 1992, pp. 227–228, 319 (no. 45); also Chi feng Tianhou zhi. In: MZWX, II, Zhulu juan (shang), p. 275. For a survey of the relations between Ming-China and Bengal: H. Ray: Trade and Diplomacy in India-China Relations. A Study of Bengal during the Fifteenth Century. Delhi 1993.

44 For example, Jiang Weiyan 2005, pp. 657–658; Long Hui 2007, p. 26; Liu Zhiwei 2014, p. 336 and n. 4 and 5 there. Liu quotes one edition of the Dongguan xianzhi; other editions also contain similar references. See, for example, Xuantong Dongguan xianzhi, I, j. 18, 7b (p. 528).

45 Huang Zhong: Hai yu (Baibu congshu ed., Lingnan yishu, box 3), j. shang, 1a. Liu Zhiwei 2014, p. 335 n. 1, cites the same passage, but the wording is different (this includes the character guan in the name Dongguan).—Near-to-complete translations of Huang's chapters on Melaka and Siam are in D. Guida: Nei mari del sud. Il viaggio nel Sud-Est Asiatico tra realtà e immaginazione: storiografia e letteratura nella Cina Ming e Qing. Rome 2007, pp. 134–138, 171–173. Also see Guida's earlier study “Ming Images of Nanyang: Some Stories from Haiyu (Words on the Sea) [1536].” In: Annali dell'Istituto Universitario Orientale 54.3 (1994), pp. 389–399.

46 For the names see, for example, Xinbian Zheng He hanghai tuji, pp. 40–43. Guangdong sheng haiyu diming zhi, pp. 479; P.-Y. Manguin: Les Portugais sur les côtes du Việt-Nam et du Campā. Étude sur les routes maritimes et les relations commerciales, d'après les sources portugaises (XVIe, XVIIe, XVIIIe siècles). Paris 1972, especially p. 60 and n. 7; and of course various well-known studies by Han Zhenhua 韓振華, not listed here.

47 The CWTFMJ remains vague. It says, “under the Yongle reign” Zhang Yuan first sacrificed there; later others enlarged the temple. The text then jumps to the early Qing period.

48 Yan Congjian 嚴從簡 (author), Yu Sili 余思黎 (ed.): Shuyu zhouzi lu. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju 2000 (originally 1574), j. 7, S. 253–254.

49 MSL (Yingzong), j. 81, 5b–6a (XXV, pp. 1618–1619); Wade 1994, V, pp. 1294–1295; Ming shi, j. 324, p. 8387 and p. 8409 n. 2.

50 See, for example, MSL (Yingzong), j. 319, 4b (XXXVII, p. 6648), and j. 343, 1b—2 a (XXXVIII, pp. 6946–6947); Wade 1994, V, pp. 1595–1597, 1609; Ming shi, j. 324, pp. 8387–8388 (there Huang Rulin 黄汝霖 for Wang Rulin); Maspero 1913, pp. 176–178 (background); Liu Zhiwei 2014, p. 337

51 These funds went through the hands of a certain “Wu Songshan 吳松山 and others”. Liu Zhiwei 2014, p. 340, believes that the local Wu family (to which Wu Guoguang belonged) was quite influential at that time (late sixteenth century).

52 For this and the following: MSL (Yingzong), j. 306, 5a–b, and j. 326, 4a–b (XXXVII, pp. 6451–6452, 6729–6230); (Xianzong), j. 47, 1a–b (XLI, pp. 0969–0970); Wade 1994, V, pp. 1584–1585, 1599–1600, and VI, p. 1628; Liu Zhiwei 2014, p. 337.

53 Liu Zhiwei 2014. Partly similar ideas in Long Hui 2007, especially pp. 46 et seq.

54 (Wanli) Guangdong tongzhi, j. 18, 20 a, to mention just one Guangdong chronicle, only refers to this temple very briefly.

55 Does this include Wu Hui? Did he play a crucial role in the development of the temple?


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