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Beobachtungen zur Verwendung der tibetischen Partikel dang

Pages 419 - 451


The Tibetan particle dang is used as (1) conjunction, (2) sociative case and (3) imperative marker. The study is based on lexicographical materials collected by the Tibetan Dictionary Project, Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities (Munich). These materials clarify features that were neglected in standard grammars or have been described insufficiently or controversially. The most important findings are as follows: (1) As a conjunction dang is normally not used after the last item of an enumeration. It may be dropped after the second and further items. With a following numeral it marks the sum of a previous enumeration. Between repeated words its function is distributive or intensifying. With nominalized clauses it often (but not always) indicates switch-reference. (2) As a case particle dang depends on a limited number of verbs denoting an associative or dissociative relationship. As an accompaniment role marker dang is often used with postpositions such as lhan cig (tu), but rarely without them. Terminative may replace dang not only metri causa but also in order to distinguish it from the conjunction dang. (3) In Old Tibetan documents and in texts translated from Sanskrit dang often is used after the particle shig; then speech continues, but with a different subject and without another imperative verb. In post-canonical literature however, dang may be used instead of shig, with other verb stems than imperative and at the end of the speech.


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