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Terry F. Kleeman: Celestial Masters. History and Ritual in Early Daoist Communities. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Asia Center 2016. xiii, 425 pp. (Harvard-Yenching Institute Monograph Series 102.) ISBN 978-0-674-73716-7. $ 49,95.

Barbara Hendrischke

Pages 251 - 256


1 See S. Cook: The Bamboo Texts of Guodian. A Study and Complete Translation. 2 vols. Ithaca 2012, pp. 211–212.

2 See A. Seidel: La divinisation de Lao Tseu dans le taoïsme des Han. Paris 1969 (Publications de l'école franÇaise d'Extrême-Orient 71).

3 See for instance G. Raz: The Emergence of Daoism. Creation of Tradition. London 2012; Lü Pengzhi: “Daoist rituals.” In: J. Lagerwey / Lü Pengzhi (eds): Early Chinese Religion. 2 vols. Leiden 2010, 2, pp. 1245–1351; B. Hendrischke: Daoist Perspectives on Knowing the Future. Selections from the Scripture on Great Peace. Wiesbaden 2017; A. Seidel: “The Image of the Perfect Ruler in Early Daoist Messianism.” In: History of Religions 9 (1969–1970), pp. 216–247.

4 See for instance Raz 2012.

5 See Lü Pengzhi 2010.

6 See Hendrischke 2017.

7 See Seidel 1969–1970.

8 See for instance T. Kleeman: “Community and Daily Life in the Early Daoist Church.” In: J. Lagerwey / Lü Pengzhi (eds): Early Chinese Religion. 2 vols. Leiden 2010, 2, pp. 395–436.

9 Compare the author's remarks on this topic in T. Kleeman: “Reconstructing China's Religious Past: Textual Criticism and Intellectual History.” In: Journal of Chinese Religions 32 (2004), pp. 29–45.

10 See Kleeman 2016, p. 95.

11 See Hendrischke 2017, p. 109.

12 See M. Puett: “Forming Spirits for the Way: The Cosmology of the Xiang'er Commentary to the Laozi.” In: Journal of Chinese Religions 32 (2004), pp. 1–27.

13 See C. Mollier: “Conceiving the Embryo of Immortality: ‘Seed-People’ and Sexual Rites in Early Taoism.” In: A. Andreeva / D. Steavu (eds.): Transforming the Void. Embryological Discourse and Reproductive Imagery in East Asian Religion. Leiden 2016 (Sir Henry Wellcome Asian Series 16), p. 95 and compare Lü 2010, pp. 1319–1322.

14 See Kleeman 2016, p. 178.

15 See P. Nickerson: “The Southern Celestial Masters.” In: L. Kohn (ed.): Daoism Handbook. Leiden 2000, p. 260.

16 See U.-A. Cedzich: “Das Ritual der Himmelsmeister im Spiegel früher Quellen. übersetzung und Untersuchung des liturgischen Materials im dritten chüan des Tengchen yin-chüe.” Ph. D. dissertation University of Würzburg 1987, pp. 9–11.

17 See Cedzich 1987, pp. 107–158. This translation, excellent as it is, is in German and difficult to access.


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